Abercrombie & Fitch Stores, Inc. (Abercrombie) (plaintiff), a clothing store company, brought a trade-dress complaint against a competitor, American Eagle Outfitters, Inc. (American Eagle) (defendant). Abercrombie claimed trade-dress violations against its clothing designs, store setup, and catalog. For its clothing design, Abercrombie claimed trade-dress protection for the use of words such as “performance,” “authentic,” and “genuine,” and for design elements such as “primary color combinations . . . in connection with solid, plain, and stripe designs.” For its store setup, it claimed trade-dress protection for in-store design elements and the use of college students as sales associates. For its catalog, it claimed protection for its style of photography, editorial content, and the particular display of its clothes. The district court granted summary judgment for American Eagle, holding that none of the claimed features amounted to protectable trade dress. Abercrombie appealed.