An Oklahoma school district (defendant) adopted a drug testing policy that required all middle and high school students to consent to drug testing in order to participate in any extracurricular activity. Under the policy, a faculty monitor would wait outside a closed restroom stall for a student to produce a urine sample, and then place two sealed bottles of the sample into a mailing pouch along with a signed consent form. The policy also required that the test results be kept confidential and only released to school personnel on a “need to know” basis. Two students (plaintiffs) challenged the policy on Fourth Amendment grounds. The district court rejected the plaintiffs’ claim, and the court of appeals reversed. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari.