Karen Hinton (plaintiff) was legally blind when not wearing corrective-vision lenses. With glasses, Hinton’s vision was 20/20 or better. Hinton applied for a position as a global airline pilot with United Airlines, Inc. (United) (defendant). United maintained a policy requiring all pilots to have, at minimum, 20/100 uncorrected sight. Because Hinton did not meet this requirement, United rejected her pilot application. Hinton sued United under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 42 U.S.C. § 12101 et seq., alleging unlawful disability discrimination. The United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit rejected Hinton’s claim, concluding she did not fall within an ADA-protected class. Hinton petitioned for review by the United States Supreme Court, which was granted.