On demand 1h 1m 53s Basic

Microsoft Word for Attorney Mac Users

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Microsoft Word for Attorney Mac Users

Proficiency when using Microsoft Word is vital to the legal practitioner. In this practical program, attorneys will learn fundamental tips and tricks for Microsoft Word on Mac computers. This course will aim to provide instruction for attorneys on time saving practices in their everyday tasks. We will analyze the customization of the Word ribbon/toolbar, including how to create new custom tabs and ribbons for efficiency, as well as review styles, page numbers, and section breaks. This course will also provide an overview of how attorneys can use Word to build out tables of content and tables of authorities for legal documents.

Transcript

Hello, everyone, and welcome to today's training, which is going to be on Microsoft Word for Mac. As we all know, Macs are starting to become more and more popular in the law school environment as well as in the legal environment. And so for those of you who are newer to some of the Microsoft features, maybe you've come through an institution that was more focused on Google Suites or maybe you were in more of a PC world to this point. This will hopefully be able to get you familiar with many of the Microsoft word, basic things that you need to know so that you can complete your legal documents. All right. So my name is Katie Brown. I'm the associate dean for information resources at Charleston School of Law. I also have a JD and a master's in information, master's of science in library Information. And so I do a lot of legal technology trainings both for practicing attorneys as well as going into classrooms here. So lots of experience with this tech. And as I mentioned, we've seen a lot of Macs come in through. So I wanted to I'm excited that you all are joining us so that you'll learn how to most effectively use word on your Mac. All right. So I know for some of you, this may be old hat. You may be very familiar with some of these components, but for some others, it may be brand new, you know, working with word. And so we're going to start with the basics, right? We're going to start with the ribbon. And so the way that the ribbon is made up, there's actually an upper part. So those are going to be your preset tabs across the top. So here we're seeing file home insert design. You may also have some custom tabs or you might have some added tabs like a grammarly, as I have here. So those may also appear on that upper tab. And then the lower tab is going to be your toolbar of menus. Other readings that you might read about, word may have may also call them groups. And so the idea behind it is that it's a specific set of tools. The thing that's important to remember is that those lower tools or menus will change based off of the upper tab that you select. So here we've got an example of. A ribbon in word. But again, this may not look like what you have on your Mac machine. And some of that is depending on the updates. Right? Sometimes we know that a an update will come down from Apple and may really change significantly the look and feel when we're working within word and so it may also look like this run it you may be running in dark mode right or you may look like this which is the the one underneath. But we're seeing that same idea. Right. We're seeing those upper tabs across the top. We're also seeing the lower tabs. The other thing that I wanted to mention, if you look at not the one that running in dark mode, but the one that is directly underneath that is actually where I am running word, but I'm actually running it off of the web app. Now. I'm mentioning that because it's really important to remember that some of the functionality that I'm going to talk about today is not available as a feature when you're using the web app, which is different than when you were running the word app on your Mac machine, right? We're not on the web. We've actually downloaded it. It's now available on. Are our machine that we're using. That's when you can get that full functionality. And that's just something to remember, right? If you start your walk, taking a look at this and you're saying, Hey, you know what, I'm not seeing preferences. I'm not seeing some of the other things that, um, you know, the instructors telling me about the likelihood is that you are running word on web, on the Web app. All right. Another thing that I wanted to mention, so just talked about that with the desktop app versus word for the Web. But if you're using that earlier version of word, you may have some different functionality, right? Something might not be in exactly the same place that I'm that I'm saying that it is. Oftentimes, though, with those earlier versions, it's there. It just might be a little hidden someplace else. Sometimes the visual, though, if it is an update, may look a little bit different than what you're seeing here on the screen. So, again, if we're going through this training and you start to see things and they're not looking exactly like what you're seeing here, the the likelihood is that you may need to do an update. You might be running an earlier version of word. The last thing that I kind of wanted to to mention, too, is a lot of times if you're looking at it and you're like, Nope, I'm running the most current version. I'm I know for a fact that I'm using the desktop app version of Word. I'm not running it on the web and I'm still not seeing it. What I recommend is that you go and take a look and see if you're running on a shorter screen, right? So see if you can hit that green button. And it's going to expand the screen because a lot of times you won't be able to see all of the functionality and all of the features within word if you are running with that truncated screen. So go and take a look, hit your green button, see if it goes to the expanded screen. And a lot of times you'll be able to see what I'm talking about when you do that. Okay. So again, getting back to that, customizing the word ribbon, that's the first thing we're going to do. Keep in mind, there are certain things that you can do with your customized word ribbon. You can hide the custom and default tabs that are there. You can always remove any custom tabs that you have created, and then you can also add tabs that are not set up as default. An example of that is actually the developer tab and add with the developer tab, you can actually run macros which will allow you to automate some functionality of some things that you'll be asked to do as an attorney. So again, that's a little bit more advanced than what we're talking about here. But he did want to remind you that there are times when you can add some of those additional tabs that are not traditionally defaults, that are preset things you can't do. You're not going to be able to reduce that size ribbon, text and icon. You can't hide the file tab, right? That one is key. You also can't move customization across different applications. So what I mean by that is we couldn't set up our ribbon here with customization in word and then decide that we want to move all of these same customization and word to customization In Excel. You do have to go into each app and make those changes. What you can do, though, is customization can move across the different. Resources that you're working on. So say you've got a mac and you also have an iPhone. And if you have word available in both of those, that customization will move from resource to resource. It just won't move across the different applications in the word suite in the Microsoft Suite. All right. So how do we customize that ribbon? Or again, some people call it the toolbar. So where you want to go first is you actually are going to select and hover over at the very top. You're going to see word listed on your top bar. So it's right next to your apple. And when you when that dropdown opens up, you are going to select the preferences. And once you select preferences, as we have highlighted here, then you're going to have a dialog box that opens up and it's going to have a bunch of different functionalities that you can select and you're going to want to select the one that's for customizing your ribbon. And so here's where it pops up. We want to select the ribbon and toolbar. Right. And when we select that, that's going to open up. Box, which will allow us to make some selections to customize our ribbon. So again, we went from home or we went from the word to. Uh, selecting preferences to this dialog box opening up, which allows us to select our ribbon and our toolbar. So once we've gone through that process, we see that we have this ribbon and toolbar that has opened up and you have two different options. You could select the ribbon or you can select the Quick Access toolbar. We'll talk about the Quick Access Toolbar in a little a little bit and talk about some value that there is to it. But for our purposes right now, we're starting with customizing that ribbon. And so you want to select ribbon as the option. The other thing that you'll notice here that I have highlighted, we see over on the left hand side, we have this choose commands from and that dropdown, the preset preset default is for popular commands. And one thing I can tell you is in law school or when you're an attorney, those popular commands usually are not what you need. So what you want to do right away is you want to make that change. Under the dropdown and you'll have an option to select all commands, and that's the functionality that you're going to want because when you select all commands, it will now allow us to potentially add some commands that are really helpful for you as an attorney and as a law student that otherwise you would not even know existed. So we'll make that change to those all commands. You'll also see in the middle here, I've highlighted this box with these two arrows. What you are able to do with these arrows is you're actually able to add items across to the main tabs of customizing your ribbon, which is on the right hand side of. This ribbon and toolbar box. If we wanted to remove a command from those tabs, we could do that as well by selecting it on the right side and then hitting the arrow and moving that back to our master command list. So everything that's on the right hand side, that's going to be all of the commands that are currently on our ribbon, under the individual tabs and everything that is on that left hand side, that is going to be the commands that are no longer on the ribbon, but you always have the option of moving them back over to that side. So when we get in to this, as I mentioned, and we want to be able to move something from one side of command, from one side to the other side, this is where, again, we select here again, I've got that popular commands do recommend that as an attorney that you would make the change so that it is to all commands. Then you would select whatever command you are interested in moving over and you can that arrow is going to become available for you will no longer be grayed out. You will select that arrow, you're going to move it over to the main tab, but you also have another option that's available to you. So if you look at the bottom of the screen, I have that arrow and it's actually pointed to that little plus sign. And when you select that plus sign that is going to enable you to actually create a brand new tab. So what I'm working with law students, I always, especially because they're often times getting in there and needing to customize their ribbon when they have to create their appellate brief. Right. And they're going to have to build these table of authorities and table of contents. And a lot of times we'll work together and we'll actually create a brand new custom tab for them that maybe is legal research and writing or something like that. Or maybe if you're someone who knows that in your practice, you are drafting a lot of appellate documents, you can actually create a customized tab, a brand new tab that would just have all the functionality that you need for that particular document. And that way you don't have to waste time, right? I always talk about a lot of the things that I provide instruction on. I'm trying to get you there the most efficient way, right? You might get there yourself, but instead of having to hunt and peck for what is that particular command need, if you have everything already organized on one particular tab, right, that is labeled with appellate brief or something like that, it just saves you minutes, right? But minutes over the course of several days, an entire year, that's pretty significant. All right. So again, this is where I've selected my all commands. And with that, all commands, like I said, there are certain commands that nobody except for a lawyer is ever going to want. And so here I actually drilled down to the small commands when we're thinking again, functionality and efficiency efficiency. Yes, you could scroll, but if you actually type in say s, it will take you to the top of all of the s commands and then you can scroll just within s to get to where you want. So again, little tips and tricks that will help you with time management and efficiency. So here I had selected small caps and I hit my little ad arrow and I can move this to the new tab. Or if I want to create an entirely new group, I could do that as well. Then once I have created that, I will hit my save. And when I go back into my customized ribbon, I will be able to see all of the commands that I moved over. I mentioned the developer tab not that long ago. Right. And so again, this is a place where under those commands is where you would have the opportunity to add the developer tab. So let me go back for a moment. When we look over here on the side, we have those main tabs available to us and we see where there are several of them selected, right? So here we've got your home tab, some of the other functionalities. Well, we would be able to see here if the developer tab was actually selected or not. You know how we know that it, as I mentioned that it is selected and available is by those check marks. So we quickly can actually just look right up here at our main tabs and see where yes, draw is available. When I look at the upper ribbon of my customize tab, I see draw, I see insert, I see home. So those are all items that have been checked and are therefore available. Across the top of that tab. And so when I'm looking through my main tab list, if I do want the developer so that I can develop some macros and help with automation of my documents, then I would just need to come over here and select that item. Once you select it, then it will be added to your ribbon. So here's an example of where I've added that developer functionality. I click the box and therefore I am seeing it on my upper tab. While you're in the customize ribbon, you do have, as I mentioned, that ability to create those new custom tabs. I quickly went through it by saying, Hey, you click this particular arrow, but if you want to step by step, that is available for you here as well. So again, you want to look below those main tabs in the right column. There's going to be the opportunity to select that new tab button for us on a mac. It's going to be that plus symbol. You can rename that button, which is really nice. You can give it whatever custom name I mentioned. That's a really nice feature. So all those commands for your appellate brief, putting it there and then calling that tab the appellate brief so you know right where to go when you're working with efficiency. And then you would if you would like to also put that within a group, you can actually select a new group and give that a name as well and customize and move several commands to that functionality If you want to do that. And then you can repeat that process over and over again for as many things that you want to add to your customized ribbon. Let's talk a little bit about that quick Access toolbar, because remember, I mentioned when we were at the start, we're customizing our ribbon, but we followed that process of going to the preferences. When we hovered over the word, we get that dropdown and then we have that great dialog box again. And if you don't want to work on your ribbon, you may want to instead have a quick access toolbar. And so when you see videos or people talk about it, a lot of times they'll actually call it the Qwerty. So that's why I have it listed here as that, because if you go on YouTube and you go to watch a video on it, right, they may refer to it that way. And one of the things that's nice with this is that it does house that set of tools, resources and commands that you want to use. It is self-contained in its own little mini ribbon. It's independent, as it says here, of the displayed tabs all across the ribbon and toolbar. And you do have the opportunity where you could actually show it below or above the ribbon. So you get a little bit of functionality and you can customize that quick access toolbar. Like I said, very similar to the way that you will customize your full ribbon, but because this is something that's independent and is always either below or above, it sometimes can give you even more functionality. So if you're someone who you know, when you're working on any document, you tend to do a lot of cut and paste or undo or some of that functionality. Really great idea to set yourself up with a quick access toolbar. Or if you're somebody who doesn't like to run, which I know some people don't like to have it automatically saving right to a SharePoint or a OneDrive. Then you may want to make sure that you have your save commands icon there so that you can quickly continue to save it so that you have all of the changes that were made. So as I mentioned, that is another option. Instead of selecting that ribbon, you would select the Quick Access Toolbar. But you would see a very similar screen here where you'd be able to move those commands from one side, from those popular commands to the other side. And it would just be for your quick access toolbar. So again, those tend to be maybe for items. It's not a lot of items and it tends to be ones that you use a lot. All right. So let's start moving into some of the tools that are going to be really helpful for us when we are drafting those legal documents. The very first thing that I want to talk about is styles. And this is a place where if you do not have your Mac, where you are running word in the full screen. So if you have it truncated, this is where a lot of the students and attorneys I work with can sometimes get lost because they say, I don't see that styles pane. I see a styles bar, but I'm not seeing the styles pane on the side. Well, the reason why is because you're in the truncated screen. All you have to do is hit that green button. It's going to expand to your full screen and then you'll be able to see not only the styles bar where you'll see even more styles than what was previously listed there in the truncated screen, but you will be able to see that styles pane, which will enable you to do some of the functionality and changes and things that I'm going to talk to you about. Because just like how we were able to customize the ribbon, we can actually create and modify our own styles, which is often going to be incredibly important when we need to create tables of contents and tables of authorities. But before we get there, I'm getting a little bit ahead of myself. Right? Let's first talk about these styles because and I will tell you, I do a lot of training for practicing attorneys. And more than once they will have said, I have seen them. I had no idea what to do with them. Um, they actually were a little intimidating for me. And so let's take it back that step to understand the basics of what the style is. So basically what a style is, is that it is going to be a preset formatting. And again, this is default formatting that word has come up with. And so when we open a word document. And we look at what you know, we start typing in there. You can see like in our example here, we're seeing this selection box around normal. And that's because that is the default for the style of normal that when we open up a word document and we haven't typed anything in it and made any changes, the default is to always be with that normal style. And you know, you can apply any of these preset formats to your word document very easily by actually highlighting the text and then selecting whatever style you want. Right. So there are several styles that are listed. We see examples here of normal style. One, there's no spacing, there's a heading. The fonts and colors may be different, right? So there are lots of different changes, some of them subtle, some of them pretty extreme with what that particular style is going to be. And again, just like when we were looking at sort of the default commands, there are very few styles that are preset that would meet the requirements for court documents that were submitting. Right? So be it. If you are in a law school setting and you have the local rules for your legal research and writing class or your, you know, a writing assignment, right. They're going to tell you, hey, this needs to be in 14 font and bolded or not bolded, right? You're going to have all of these guidelines that are preset. Well, the same thing happens when you are in practice. And it will be the court will have these local rules that you have to adhere to. And so the thing to remember is often these styles that are preset in your Mac that's not going to be those defaults aren't going to be what you need to use for law. So at the minimum, you are likely going to change the normal style. At the maximum, you may create your own style that will adhere to what you need for a particular court, right? The other thing that where styles can be a really helpful tool for you, as I mentioned, is when we're doing things like headings, because again, your court rules will dictate what certain headings should be, the size, font color, whether or not they're centered or justified left. All of those factors. And then you may even have some jurisdictional issues where you're not allowed to use certain styles. And so those are some other things to keep in mind. All right. So I've talked a lot about those styles, but let's see some examples. So here again, I selected some text and I then went from my normal setting to a no space setting. And so here's an example of where there are no spaces unless I have forced that space by selecting the space bar. And so again, it's just a subtle difference from the normal, but we're losing some of that spacing that is there between some of the letters as well as the only spacing that will appear in the document is forced spacing by me. So I mentioned many of the the styles do not meet the basic guidelines and requirements of what we would want for something submitting to the court. I'll also mention, and this is a you know, we have several of our professors who teach in our legal research and writing were in active practice, and one of them was actually talking about his particular firm. They had a style that they had spent a lot of money to have someone come up with what was the font for their firm. So even their internal memos, things that maybe went to the client, but we're not going to the court had a set guidelines of what, you know, the font was and the color. And if nothing else, the header at the top had to have this certain font too. So that's something else to think about because in the back of your mind, you might be thinking, well, you know, I'm not in a litigation practice, I'm not going to court or that isn't one of my goals that I want in the future. But no, even if you're in house counsel, um, if you're working in more of a transactional firm, right, you might still have some of these guidelines that you have to adhere to for your corporation, or because that particular firm has paid a lot of money to a PR team who say, hey, this is this is the official font size color for our particular firm that we like to use. Okay. So let's talk about modifying that style. This is where you've got to make sure that you can see that panel bar and that you're able to select that style pane. Because once you select that, then you will see along the side, that right hand side. We get this long rectangular style list that pops up. The thing that's really neat with this list is right away you could see where it's telling you the style that's currently selected. If you wanted to change that and you say wanted to go to style one or no spacing or the title or the headings, right, you could select that and that would change above. That current style. If you had highlighted some of that text, we would see where that current style would go from normal to whatever style you selected, or you also have the opportunity to select the new style. Right. So this little button that you see that's underneath the current style, you could select that new style. And when you select it, that is where you could begin the process of either starting from scratch or you could modify a current style. So let's see that a little closer, right? So here I have this normal style, right? And I can select a new style. And when that pops up here in my example, I just changed my name, right? So I was going to create a Style three. And then I can modify that style to meet whatever needs I want it. So here the style is based on normal style. So that would be the Calibri 12. But I could make any changes to this that I want. And as you see, it's beyond just color font. And like some of those basics, I can also change paragraphs, I could change justification, I could change tabs. So I've got a lot of different options available to me. And then at the bottom I have these options where I could add this to a template. I could make it automatically update or I can add this to the quick style list, which means this would be a style that would be set in my listing and I could go back to it later on if I want. So once I've made those changes here to that style, I then could select. Okay. And that style will be available for me to go back to later on. So again, really easy way to make those modifications. I could have also kept us with normal style and then made a change to that normal style instead of giving it a brand new name. That's another option for me because maybe I say, You know what? What they have set up as a default for normal, that's not what I want. You know, there are some firms that even though most of words default in the most version update and actually for a while now has been the calibri. But maybe that's not the font. Maybe your firm says, Nope, we use times New Roman, and other than that, everything else is fine. Then you can actually do. You can make the modifications so that your normal every time you open up word is for times new Roman instead of calibri. All right. Another very cool functionality that's available with styles is that you can actually create a shortcut key. For a style that you create. So again, for some folks, if they you know, there are some people that love to use a mouse, they love to, you know, highlight and do that that way. But other people find that just because of their typing ability, that it is much faster for them to use a shortcut key than a mouse or the, you know, the just moving it with a touch screen. Right. They don't like using that. Then you can set up a shortcut key that would be associated with that particular style. So here I've got style for right? I set up that shortcut key and then later on when I'm working in any document. I can highlight the particular content that I want to be in style for. I select that that shortcut key and it will automatically make that change for me. Now, one thing that I like with Max is we get this really nice opportunity to actually see the formatting and the style that we have preset in the document. And the way that we do that is when we're in that styles pane along the side. You want to select show styles, guide and show direct formatting guides. So when we do that, we see where there are colors that have been assigned to each of the formatting as well as a number. And then when I look over and I've done a couple of different styles here, I can see where those particular styles have been selected. And this is also very helpful because I will tell you sometimes when you are doing some advanced functionalities in Mac, this may also come into play if you have an older Mac and it just seems like it's not taking your commands right. You're trying to change the formatting. We see this a lot when people are using some of the heading functions where you're you're doing what you're supposed to do, right? You're following my my instructions, you're highlighting, you've made the modifications to the style and now you're just trying to get that heading one or heading two to work. So then you can build your table of contents and table of authorities later. And use some of the really nice efficiency functionality that is available with the Mac or I'm sorry, with Word and with the Mac. It doesn't always like to do that. I always try to explain, you know, Mac, one of the things that people love about Macs, right, is that it, there is some more ease of use with it. That's why especially people in the arts and the design field really love them. And so but when we're trying to do word the way it's a computer system and the way that it is built is it's trying to do functionality in order. And so when you are doing some of this forced formatting, the system almost is saying, Hey, it's easier to do it this way, right? So it's like, but but why? Why do you want that format? Why do you want that style? And it doesn't, you know, as a computer system, you can't talk it into doing it right. So what I have found is using this option allows you to see where that formatting is, because even though the computer system might say, Hey, that heading one is present, when you're visually looking at it, it may not be there. And so what I always recommend and it's almost the consistency of like, you know, the IT guy basically saying like, turn it off and turn it on. But what I recommend is I will go in, I will then rehighlight. So again, say that number three style of heading one is not doing what it's supposed to do. I will select that again and I will actually clear the formatting for that one thing and then I will do it again. And nine times out of ten, that's going to fix it. It's just for whatever reason the formatting itself isn't taking. It's a little the computer system is just not listening to the force of formatting we're trying to put on it. And so I will just clear the formatting for that one particular heading and then I will just remodify it, highlight it again. And usually nine times out of ten that will fix my problem. All right, let's talk a little bit about page numbers, because especially when we are working with court documents and when you are drafting, say, your appellate brief for your classes, your legal research and writing classes, they will give you some interesting court rules where they will say, you know what, your table of contents, your table of authorities, I want that to have a numbering format that is Roman numerals. And then the first page of the document, I don't want a number on it, but the rest of the document you can have with a traditional numbering scheme. But I want you to start with number two, right? So these are additional layers that are put on to this document, additional rules that you need to adhere to, and the way that you're going to do that is by actually controlling the format of the page number. And so where we do that is we're going to select from that upper ribbon. You want to select the insert tab and then there's going to be an option for page numbers. When you select that, you will have a little dropdown that allows you to select page number format. And so here we've got our traditional number format. But with this dropdown that I see, I have the ability to change that to another. So again, I could have Roman numerals and then there are some other options that are available to me. The other thing that's going to come into play that's going to be key is we'll have this continue from previous section. And this is where if you have to force the number formatting. So again, if we need to go from Roman numerals to your traditional sort of Arabic numerals, we can do that. And the way that we would do that is we build in a section break. I'll show you how to do that in a moment. And then when you go into your page formatting, you would want to make sure that you deselect the continue from previous section. And the reason why is we're going to be changing treating these two sections of the paper completely different. Right? And we only want one section, that first section to have Roman numerals and we want that second section be on the other side of the section break. That's what you're going to have with these traditional one, two, three, four. Also, if you want it to start at a different number, you could select that start at which is directly underneath the continue from previous section and you could start that at number 3 or 4, Whatever the rules are that you have been given, then you would just select okay, and it's going to implement those page formatting number changes. So I mentioned sections. Your section breaks and page breaks are going to be available under the layout. So we see here in the example image. First we have page breaks. Page breaks are going to come into play if your local rules and some of them will say that, you know, you've got when you're drafting your documents, there are headings that you are supposed to use and then you need to have at least three full sentences after the headings. So that may be the rule. And when you are drafting your document, you have a heading and then you only have one sentence. Well, you have to force then the formatting and move that heading and you know those first few lines to the next page because it's not adhering to the rule. The way you do that is by selecting that page break. So here we've got this marked the point at the page where one page ends and then it's going to push it to the next page. So that's a page break with a section break. Those section breaks are going to come into play most of the time when we're running, wanting to control that page number formatting. So again, if we are in a situation where we're going from Roman numerals to your traditional one, two, three, at the very last page where you have that Roman numeral, that is where you would want to put in that section, break under. So we'd go all the way down to where the last possible line of text is. We want to go directly underneath that. I'm going to put in the section break and I want to select the next page section break, and then when we go to the next page, we'll actually be able to modify our our page numbers like we talked about on the last slide using that page page number format. So again, a great option for us. So we've talked about all of these individual pieces that can help you again with drafting things like appellate briefs. But now let's put some of these individual tools together so that we can build a table of contents in our word document. So if you are not as familiar with this particular process, or maybe you are a one in your first legal research and writing and you haven't really played with references and footnotes and some of those those particular resources, this is a place where you want to go in and you're going to, as I said, you're going to build this table of contents. So where we do that is we select from the upper tab list. We select references. And when we look all the way over to the left hand of our screen, that is where we're going to see a table of contents. Now, the easiest way for folks to add that table of contents is that we would come over here and we would select the dropdown for the table of contents all the way over to the left hand side, and you can drop a table of contents in and you can make some manual changes to it. And there are people that do that. But again, I like to teach folks to do it in a very efficient. Let's get rid of that extra time waste that's there. So let's have the system do it for us. So I'm going to walk you through that process now using styles. Okay, So here's how this works. The way that we're going to build our table of contents is that I want to wait until I have pretty much a completed document. Now, I have worked with students here at the school, especially students maybe that are doing an upper level writing assignment, and they've got a really nice solid outline that they know isn't going to move around. And so they have all their headings in place already and you can actually build a table of contents with just headings that you know you're going to use for your document. But then you have to make sure to remember to update and don't worry, I'll show you how to do that, But you'll need to remember to, to update that document in that table of contents later on so that it is at its most current form. But if you are not, you know, a person like that, or maybe you know that you might forget to update, then I would recommend that you start with your completed documents. So you'll do all your drafting. Okay. So then what we want to do is we're going to set all of our headings with the style settings that are required under our local rules. So once we've done that process, we will just go through and we'll highlight the headings. So as it says here, we're going to select heading one style for all of our main headings. We're going to select Heading two style for our sub headings, select heading three style for our sub sub headings and then we can go on for there for however many headings we need to have for our particular document. So here is an example of where what we would do as we're going through is we would highlight whatever on this page is supposed to be our heading one. We would highlight that in the document. And again here with this example, I'm on my home screen so that I can see those. I'm under the home tab so that I can see those particular styles and heading one is the style that's available to me. And so I would select whatever I want to have a heading one, select the heading one, and it will make that change heading two and then you continue on. Now sometimes this is a place of panic, which happens with some of the students when I'm working with them, and so I'm just going to put it out there in advance. You may be looking at your styles pane right now and you might say, Hey, but I only see a heading one and a heading two. I'm not seeing this heading three or heading four. Here's the cool thing that happens with Macs, especially sometimes with words. It's a little clunkier, but I've never seen where this hasn't happened. When we're working with a mac where you if as soon as you add that heading two, then you're heading three will populate and then you just need to modify it to meet your needs. And then once you use the heading three, the heading four will populate. And so you can keep doing that for however many headings you need. So don't worry, it will come. So once you need the heading three like after you've used the heading two you possibly could need a heading three Then it will pop up into your styles. So here's just another breakdown, a little breakdown of the where you would see. I've got some highlighted text and then I've selected my heading one. I've got some additional highlighted text, and then I select my heading two and then we move on from there. And you just do that over and over again for all of the headings that you have for your document. So once you've followed that step. Then what you want to do is you want to place your cursor where you want that table of contents to appear. Most of the time it's going to be at the top of a blank page, which is the first page. But again, you may want it to be someplace else or your local rules may dictate to you that you want, that you need to have it somewhere else. Step three is where you select that references tab. So then step four, you're going to select the table of contents. Step five You choose whatever prebuilt table you want, or there is an opportunity where you can create your own table of contents format that is available to you in a dropdown if you want to create it yourself. And then once you've selected the format that you like, you've built the format that you want, your table of contents will appear with the page numbers already assigned to each of the headings. So here's an example of that. Where I went through when I had some texts in place and then I selected the table of contents, I selected my automatic table of contents. So I use actually table of contents to was the one that I selected. And then I look here and I've got that information available. So I've got the name of the table of contents. We have our introduction and then lawyering models for my different headings. So how do I update it? Remember I mentioned that you always want to make sure that you are updating, especially before you turn something in. Do you have the most current version of that table of contents? The way that you're going to do that is you select table or contents or table of contents, right? And you can do that. Actually, they'll. Let me go back. I'll show you here. So here we've got this table of contents. I could actually hover over it and I may get a dropdown from that. And that's sort of where we're going here. That little dropdown will will populate and I'll see update table. I select the update entire table. That's what I'm interested in. So let's see this in a visual, right? So I highlighted over my table of contents. This box appeared for me. I have this option to update the table of contents. I could just update the page numbers only. I tend to update the entire table. That way it will make all the changes that are necessary. Any potential change that I have, and then I can work from there. Another option if you're not seeing that box pre-populate when you hover over your contents or table of contents, whatever you have listed there, you can go into that references tab and again next to the table of contents, you could select update the table there. Similar box is going to pop up and you do the same thing. You would want to update the entire table. So two different options for how to get to that updating functionality. All right. So now let's talk about table of authorities, right? So when we are working with a table of authorities, there is value to it, similar to when we talked about the table of contents. It's a really handy tool for efficiency. It's also a handy tool for the reader. Right? When we work with the table of authorities, we actually have the ability to hyperlink not only our table of authorities, but also our table of contents. So when someone is looking at it electronically and they select, you know, the first part, the first table item in your table of authorities, it will take you to that particular case in that section on that page. So it can be a really, really handy tool for someone who's just looking to jump around your document. Um. And again, there are some other really great value that we see listed here. Now when I building my table of authorities, we have two very basic steps for what we're going to be doing to create this table of authorities. We're going to mark the citation, show you how to do that, and then we're going to create the table. Now, this is very misleading because I have mentioned there are only two steps, Right. But there are actually got several steps that are going to go into the process of actually marking the citations. So there are several pieces that are going to come into play when we are marking those citations. So it seems pretty simple, but we'll go through some of the details of actually marking them. So. How do we complete the step one? How do we mark the citation? So the first thing you want to do is you're going to select that references tab, right? That's across the top. And then you want to highlight, you'll have to go through and look at your document that you're working with and you need to highlight the citation that you are going to be marking. Then you select Mark Citation and then you're going to follow that process. After you go in and you select the right category, you're going to have to. Mark that citation and then you're going to make sure that that citation is in the correct category, because we all know when we're working on legal documents, you could have secondary sources, you could have web links, you could have Constitution provisions, you could have several different kinds of citations depending on the legal document that you are drafting. And then you're just going to repeat that process over and over and over again for the entire document. When you are selecting to mark that citation. One step, which is really important, is you want to make sure that you are deleting. You want to make sure that you are deleting the PIN site that is in the citation. And the reason why you do that is right. As I say, it's a computer system, right? So it does not know, you know, Bluebook versus State page 32 is not the same case as Bluebook versus State page 40. So that's why you want to make sure that when you're marking these citations that you're going to delete the PIN site. And don't worry, we'll see some visuals for it as well. But I did want to go through all of these different stages. You also have an option where you could say select. All right. So we're going to mark all. Now, some people love the mark all functionality. I tend to be a little anxious with the mark all especially when I'm working with newer law students that are just starting to learn how to build their table of authorities. Here's the reason why. Again, it's a computer system. It does not know that ID should go with Bluebook V State instead of with Redbook V State. Right? If you have an ID, it's going to treat ID as the same because it looks the same to the computer system. So that's why I actually recommend, especially as my students are first learning about this process, that to select Mark Citation and not to select Mark all. And that's sort of how I teach it to the students. And once you're more familiar with the process, then you'll know the opportunities that you have for Mark. All But I just tend, especially in the beginning, if this is new functionality for you, I recommend to select the Mark citation and not mark all so that you don't run into that weird ID problem. All right. So let's see it from a visual point of view. What are we doing here? So again, I'm under that references tab. If I had all the way over to the right. Remember when we were looking at the table of contents? We were all the way over to the left on that ribbon. Here I'm all the way over to the right. I'm going to select Mark Citation. And then I am going to select and highlight that citation, or you could highlight the citation and then select Mark Citation, Right. Once you do that, a box is going to appear. Where you will see Mark Citation. You are going to see the selected text. So that selected. Case citation. Then I am going to select whatever category it falls under. So here I know that this is a case. So I would select cases. I see that citation pop up. There are some jurisdictions that may want you to include the period. There are some jurisdictions where their rules may say do not include the period. So again, you'll just want to adhere to whatever that rule is. If it is a jurisdiction that doesn't want you to include the period, all we would have to do is actually delete that period from the citation if I had a PIN site. So here, if it was 497 US 836 comma 840, I would just remove 840 because again, the system will treat that as a different case. Instead of the same case. And what we're trying to do with the table of authorities is tell whoever our reader is every single page that Maryland V Craig appeared on. And so it doesn't matter what that PIN site is. Right? So we'll mark that citation. And we'll move on from there. So once we have it marked, we follow that process over and over and over again. Now, sometimes students will say to me, but how do I know? How do I know that I have accurately marked that citation? Right? We went through that process. We marked it. Well, a great way to see if you see in the middle here, right where I have my Davis v Washington. We're seeing the original citation that was available, but then we're seeing additional code, right? So we see this to and we're seeing additional information. So that code is telling me that I already marked this. This is built into the back end of the formatting. It will appear as soon as you start marking these citations. So you want to keep that in mind, right. But you will be able to get rid of it most of the time when you create your table of authorities, it will automatically get rid of that code and it will just build your table of authorities. But I will say, I see this more with Max than when I'm working with students with PCs Every once in a while. It doesn't automatically clear and get out, get that formatting. It continues to stay there and it drives people crazy. And don't worry, I'll show you how to very quickly will deselect a box and you'll actually be able to all of your Mark Marks will stay, but it will make it so that that formatting is in the back end. It's a very quick fix and I'll show you that in a moment. So again, we followed that step one. We did that throughout our entire document. And then we want to follow step two. So what we're going to do is we'll place that cursor similar to what we did with the table of contents wherever we want that table of authorities to appear. Again, oftentimes at the top of a blank page, if you want to start it on a separate page or in some instances I've seen where individuals have been asked to put that table of authorities at the very end. Of the document. It's just going to be the preference of the audience, right? The audience member that it's being given to, or if there are rules or guidelines on it, then we click that references tab. We're going to click or select, insert our table of authorities. We'll select whatever template we want. And then once we select that template, it will build that table of authorities. I do want to make a little note about Possum. Again. This tends to be a jurisdictional, sometimes a court to court what Possum does, and again, I may be mispronouncing it. That's how I've always been told to say it. So that's how I say it. But what this is basically telling the system is if you've selected insert possum, it's going to it translate to basically the entire document contains this particular case or statute or whatever it is, and that it is throughout the entire document. And so that's what Possum stands for. You can also deselect it, and if you deselect that particular tab, then you it will list every single page that that citation appears on. All right. So here's what we see at once. We've we've built that. We're building that particular table of authorities. We've picked the wherever it's going to be on our on our documents. We could select or deselect possum. And then if we also wanted to change the template or the format of that table authorities, this is where we could also select to do that as well. Then we would select our okay and then we can make some changes. All right. So I mentioned that sometimes what happens? Oh, and here's where before we built our table of authorities. I went to the very top of this screen here for this document I was working with. I selected my insert table of authorities after I've marked everything and then it will automatically appear after I've selected my options with possum and my okay. And then it built my table of authorities that I was using with my two cases that were cited. But as I mentioned, sometimes these little paragraph symbols, this formatting will go away. Sometimes it doesn't. Don't worry, I'll show you how to get rid of it if it didn't go away naturally. But before I do that, sometimes you'll build your table of authorities and you realize, Oh man, I accidentally put a statute under a case or I didn't select the proper category. I'm going to tell you the easiest way. I have found the most efficient way to correct this problem. All you have to do is go back into that document. Where that particular citation is and I remove the code completely. So I just delete that code that's around where the particular citation is. I delete that, I mark it again and I just select the correct category. I have found that is the easiest way to fix the problem. If I need to update the table of authority. Unlike with our table of contents, where we see over on the left side, right, that update table option is always available to me. Here on the other side. What I'm looking at my mark citation and my table of authorities. That update table is going to be grayed out. Here's what you have to do. You just need to select whatever the thing is that you want to update. Maybe that's one line of the table of authorities. Maybe that's the entire table of authorities. And then whatever is selected, once you select it, then this update table will reappear. So we'll see where it was grayed out. And now I'm seeing it here available to me with update table because I have selected some of the table to update. All right. So I mentioned that formatting, right? Sometimes we build that table and we can't get rid of that formatting for whatever reason, even though it's supposed to get rid of it. After you've created your table of authorities, it doesn't get rid of it. Very, very easy to fix that. All you have to do is go to your home tab. Again, those tabs that are at the upper part of your ribbon, we're going to see the paragraph symbol which I have highlighted here. It's right next to your styles pane and styles boxes. All you have to do is de-select that paragraph symbol and all of those formatting markers are going to go away. But that's also for those of you who didn't realize this and you've ever looked at a document and thought, Oh, is my formatting a little bit different things look a little, don't look consistent. You can actually check your formatting that way as well. You could select this and it will make all of your formatting show up. So again, nice little functionality for you to easily get rid of or add it depending on what you need. And with that, I want to thank you all for joining me to learn all about some of these basic functionalities in Word when you're working on a mac. Thank you so much.

Presenter(s)

KBJ
Katie Brown, JD
Associate Dean for Information Resources
Charleston School of Law

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