Sica and Carbo (defendants) were convicted of extortion for allegedly seizing professional control of Don Jordan, a boxer, from Jordan's manager, Donald Nesseth, and Jordan's promoter, Jackie Leonard. At trial, Nesseth and Leonard testified for the United States government (plaintiff) that Sica had a bad reputation as a "strong arm" for organized crime. The trial judge overruled Sica's objection to this testimony. The government introduced the testimony for the limited purpose of showing that Nesseth and Leonard inferred that Sica threatened their physical safety if they resisted giving up control of Jordan's career. The trial judge instructed and charged the jury to consider the testimony only for that limited purpose. Sica appealed his conviction to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit on the grounds that Nesseth and Leonard's testimony was improperly admitted.