Crooker (defendant) was arrested for murder and told police that he was fully aware of his right to remain silent. He had been studying criminal law at law school. He asked permission to contact his lawyer during interrogation, but the police denied this request. Crooker eventually confessed to the murder. He was convicted. He appealed on the grounds that his due process rights were violated when the police refused him the opportunity to contact his lawyer. As a result, he contended, the trial court should not have admitted the confession into evidence. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari.