Bauman, et al. (plaintiffs), residents of Argentina, brought suit against DaimlerChrysler AG (Daimler) (defendant) in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California. The plaintiffs alleged that Mercedes-Benz Argentina (MBA), a Daimler subsidiary, collaborated with Argentinian forces to kidnap, torture, and kill MBA workers during an Argentinian war. These workers were the plaintiffs or persons closely related to the plaintiffs. Daimler was a German company. MBA’s alleged actions took part solely outside of the United States. The plaintiffs based their claim of the district court’s jurisdiction on Daimler’s subsidiary, Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC (MBUSA), which was incorporated in Delaware and had its principal place of business in New Jersey. MBUSA distributed Daimler cars to all 50 states and had various facilities and offices in California. Daimler filed a motion to dismiss the claims based on lack of personal jurisdiction. The district court granted the motion. The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit affirmed and later reversed. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari.