The Salt River Project Agricultural Improvement and Power District (SRP) (defendant) leased land from the Navajo Nation (Nation). Under the lease, the SRP was required to give hiring preference to local Navajos. Harold Dawavendewa (plaintiff), a Hopi, applied for a job but was denied an interview. Dawavendewa sued SRP in federal court for violations of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. SRP moved to dismiss for failure to join the Nation, which SRP alleged was an indispensable party. The district court agreed and dismissed the complaint. Dawavendewa appealed.