Ferrari S.P.A. Esercizio (Ferrari) (plaintiff) was a luxury-automobile manufacturer with a reputation for producing exclusive vehicles with distinctive designs, including the Daytona Spyder and the Testarossa. Carl Roberts (defendant) began manufacturing and selling kits that would allow budget-conscious car enthusiasts to copy the exterior design of Ferrari’s Spyder and Testarossa onto the undercarriage of less expensive vehicles. Roberts marketed his kits as the Miami Spyder and the Miami Coupe. Ferrari brought a trademark-infringement suit against Roberts. The district court ruled in favor of Ferrari and issued a permanent injunction against Roberts, enjoining Roberts from manufacturing and selling the Miami Spyder and Miami Coupe kits. Roberts appealed.