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Ingram v. Madison Square Garden Center

709 F.2d 807 (1983)

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Ingram v. Madison Square Garden Center

United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit

709 F.2d 807 (1983)

Facts

Local 3 of the International Brotherhood of Electric Workers (the union) (defendant) was a union that represented the workers at Madison Square Garden (Madison Square). Madison Square hired workers based on referrals from the union. Between 1970 and 1978, Madison Square hired 33 workers referred by the union, of whom six were either Black or Hispanic. Thus, 18.2 percent of Madison Square’s hires during this period were Black or Hispanic. By comparison, Blacks and Hispanics comprised 27 percent of the relevant labor pool. Henry Ingram (plaintiff) brought a class-action suit, alleging that the union violated Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII). Specifically, Ingram contended that the union prevented Blacks and Hispanics from obtaining jobs at Madison Square. The district court held that the union violated Title VII. Further, the district court found that, for the purpose of calculating backpay, 13 class members should have been hired by Madison Square between 1970 and 1978. If such hiring had occurred, 57 percent of Madison Square’s hires during this period would have been Black or Hispanic. Subsequently, the district court ordered the union to pay $663,085 in backpay. The gross award was divided among 18 class members on a pro rata basis. The first seven class members who sought jobs at Madison Square received $345,716 in backpay. This amount was equal to approximately 52.14 percent of the gross award. The union appealed.

Rule of Law

Issue

Holding and Reasoning (Van Graafeiland, J.)

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