Russian Kurier, Incorporated (defendant) owns and operates the Kurier newspaper (Kurier) (defendant), a Russian language newspaper based in New York City. Oleg Pogrebnoy (defendant) is the president, sole shareholder, and editor-in-chief of Kurier. Kurier admits that it published approximately 500 Russian language news articles owned by third-party organizations, including Itar-Tass Russian News Agency (Itar), several Russian newspapers and magazines, Russian language magazines published in Israel, and the Union of Journalists of Russia (plaintiffs). The plaintiffs sued Kurier and Pogrebnoy for copyright infringement in a United States district court. Applying Russian law, the district court ultimately enjoined Kurier from publishing articles from the plaintiffs’ publications and imposed monetary damages for infringement. Kurier appealed.