Fauzia Din (plaintiff), an American citizen living in the United States, was married to Kanishka Berashk, an Afghan citizen. Berashk applied for a visa to live in the United States, but the United States Department of State (government) (defendant) denied the request. The government based the denial on the terrorist-activity provision of the Immigration and Nationality Act. Din brought suit against the government, alleging that the denial violated her due process of law in that it prevented her from living in the United States with her husband. The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit found in favor of Din. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari.