In the state of Tennessee, certain nursing homes participated in the Medicaid program. The state government (defendant) adopted a policy in which only a portion of the beds in those nursing homes were certified to be available for Medicaid patients. Mildred Linton (plaintiff) was a Medicaid patient and nursing home resident who was compelled to involuntarily transfer facilities due to this policy. Linton brought suit, alleging, among other issues, that the policy had an unjustifiable disparate impact on minorities. Although blacks comprised 39 percent of Medicaid patients, they accounted for only 15 percent of Medicaid patients who were able to gain access to Medicaid-covered nursing home services. The state maintained that this disparate impact was due to self-selection by minorities, including minorities’ reliance on extended family, lack of transportation, and fear of institutional care. The case was brought before the United States District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee.