Under her power granted in the Indian Reorganization Act (IRA), the Secretary of the Interior (Secretary) acquired land in trust for the Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians (Band) to build a casino. David Patchak (plaintiff) lived near the land acquired for the casino. Patchak brought suit, asserting that the Secretary did not have the authority to acquire the land under the IRA and claiming economic, environmental, and aesthetic harms from the proposed casino. The district court dismissed Patchak’s suit, finding that he did not have prudential standing to bring the claim. The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit reversed. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari.