A Missouri statute imposed limits on contributions to state political candidates. The limits ranged from a high of $1,075 for contributions to candidates for statewide office and for any office where the population exceeded 250,000, down to $275 for contributions to candidates for state representative or for any office for which there were fewer than 100,000 people represented. In 1998, Zev David Fredman, a candidate for Missouri state office and the Shrink Missouri Government PAC (PAC) (plaintiffs) filed suit against Nixon and the State of Missouri (defendants) in federal district court. PAC alleged that the statute violated the First and Fourteenth Amendments. The district court applied Buckley v. Valeo (1976) and upheld the statute as constitutional. The court of appeals reversed, and the United States Supreme Court granted certiorari.