Jose Quintana married Socorro Quintana (plaintiff) in 1958. In 1971, Jose met Esther Osuna (defendant). Jose began an affair with Esther that continued to the time of trial. In 1983, while still married to Socorro, Jose participated in a ceremonial marriage with Esther. Jose supported Esther and the three children he had with her, including giving Esther large sums of money, buying her a house, and buying her a vehicle. Esther testified that, as early as 1984, she knew that Jose was married. Socorro filed for divorce in 1994. The trial court granted the divorce. The trial court awarded Socorro the house where she lived, funds in the court registry, and two vehicles Jose had purchased. The court also awarded Socorro a joint-and-several liability judgment of $460,000, equally payable by either Jose or Esther. This judgment was to reimburse Socorro for money that Jose had allegedly given to Esther in fraud of the community estate. Esther and Jose appealed.