Michael Caddy (defendant), a resident of England, owned and operated a bed and breakfast that he named Pebble Beach due to its location overlooking pebbly beaches on the south shore of England. He operates a website for the bed and breakfast at www.pebblebeach-uk.com. The website was not interactive and did not have a reservation or allow guests to book rooms or pay for anything related to the bed and breakfast online. Pebble Beach Company (Pebble Beach) (plaintiff) was a well known golf resort in California. It operated a website for the resort at www.pebblebeach.com. Caddy had been to California and was aware of the golf resort. Pebble Beach sued Caddy in California for trademark infringement. Caddy filed a motion to dismiss based on lack of personal jurisdiction and the district court granted his motion. Pebble Beach appealed.