Petroliam Nasional Berhad (Petronas) (plaintiff) was a large, well-known oil and gas company. Petronas owned the trademark for “PETRONAS.” A third party registered the domain names petronastower.net and petronastowers.net. Subsequently, the third party transferred the registrations to be administered by a different domain-name registrar, GoDaddy.com, Inc. (defendant). The third party used the domain names to redirect consumers to an adult website. Petronas sued GoDaddy in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California for violating the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act (ACPA). Petronas sought to hold GoDaddy liable for contributory cybersquatting under the ACPA. The district court held that such a cause of action did not exist. Petronas appealed.