Pursuant to the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act, the Secretary of Agriculture (defendant) issued Order No. 4, which set the minimum price for the sale of milk by producers to handlers in the Greater Boston, Massachusetts area. The order also specified an amount for administrative deductions. The order required handlers to pay producers the minimum price less the amount for administrative deductions. The order also required handlers to pay the administrator the amount of the administrative deductions for payment to milk cooperatives. A group of milk producers (plaintiffs) brought a class action suit challenging the Secretary’s right to require the deductions under the Act. The district court dismissed the case for failure to state a claim. The Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia affirmed. The producers appealed.