The State of Washington (plaintiff) charged Edward Nicholas (defendant) with burglary and the rape of Ms. S. A doctor performed a vaginal smear on Ms. S, which revealed a blood type O secretor. Ms. S. was a type O secretor, which meant that the perpetrator was either a type O secretor or a nonsecretor. Type O secretors and nonsecretors comprised approximately 60 percent of the population. Nicholas was a type A nonsecretor, which meant that the laboratory test did not rule him out. Nicholas objected to the introduction of the test results, but the trial court admitted the results into evidence. The jury convicted Nicholas and he appealed.