In 1945, several nations established the Nuremburg Tribunal to prosecute Germans who had committed crimes against peace, war crimes, and human rights violations during the World War II era (defendants). Crimes against peace, war crimes, and human rights violations were defined in the tribunal’s charter. The tribunal indicted 27 individuals. The defendants argued that they could not be guilty of a crime absent a preexisting law. The defendants also argued that international law was concerned with the conduct of nations and could not prosecute individuals. The defendants argued that individual actors were protected from prosecution by state sovereignty.