Judge Aguilar (defendant) found out that Abraham Chalupowitz’s (Chapman) name had appeared on a wiretap authorization. Aguilar told Chapman about the wiretap. When Aguilar was later interviewed by the FBI about his knowledge of the situation, Aguilar lied and stated that he did not know about the wiretap. During that conversation, Aguilar asked whether he was the target of a grand jury investigation. The FBI agent responded that a grand jury was convening and that some evidence may be heard. Aguilar was charged with obstruction of justice under the Omnibus Provision of 18 U.S.C. § 1503. The jury convicted Aguilar of violating the statute. The circuit court reversed the conviction and affirmed the reversal after rehearing en banc. The prosecution appealed, and the United States Supreme Court granted certiorari.