Reginald Buckner (defendant) was convicted of possession with intent to distribute 53 grams of crack, or cocaine base. Buckner was sentenced to 250 months in prison, in accordance with the United States Sentencing Guidelines. The Sentencing Guidelines recommend much harsher sentences for defendants convicted of possessing a certain amount of crack than defendants possessing the same amount of cocaine. Possession of approximately 100 grams of cocaine carries the same punishment as possession of one gram of crack. Congress determined that possession of crack was more dangerous to society because of crack’s potency, its highly addictive nature, its affordability, and its increasing availability. Bucker appealed his sentence, arguing that the punishment was unconstitutional under the Fifth and Eighth Amendments.