Gerald Carroll (defendant) robbed the St. Louis Community Credit Union in 1998. At Carroll’s trial for the robbery, the prosecution introduced, over Carroll’s objection, his prior conviction for bank robbery. The previous bank robbery had occurred in 1988. In each bank robbery, Carroll had worn a stocking as a mask and jumped over the teller counter to take the money. Carroll also carried a gun during each robbery. The district court held that the prior conviction was admissible under Federal Rule of Evidence (FRE) 404(b) “for purposes of showing a plan or pattern . . . plus identity.” Carroll was convicted, and he appealed.