Victor Cortés-Cabán and nine other officers of the Mayagüez Drugs and Narcotics Division of the Puerto Rico Police Department (defendants) planted drug evidence and conducted illegal searches and seizures of individuals’ premises. The United States (plaintiff) charged the officers with conspiracy to possess, with the intent to distribute, controlled substances in violation of the Controlled Substances Act. At trial, Lt. Dennis Muñiz testified that he retrieved illicit drugs and other contraband from a securely stored metal box and distributed the items to the officers. The officers then voluntarily placed or planted the items on the premises of 10 individuals to ensure an arrest. A jury convicted three of the officers, and the officers appealed.