In 2000, a jury convicted Shariff Miller (defendant) of possessing cocaine with intent to distribute. In 2008, police found a large quantity of cocaine in Miller's room. The United States (government) (plaintiff) charged Miller with possessing cocaine with intent to distribute, and of being a convicted felon in possession of firearms. Miller denied the cocaine was his, but he did not deny it was intended for distribution. At trial, the government introduced evidence of Miller's 2000 conviction to show his intent to commit the 2008 offenses. A jury convicted Miller for the 2008 offenses. Miller appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit.