Logourl black
From our private database of 14,100+ case briefs...

United States v. Plaza Health Laboratories, Inc.

United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit
3 F.3d 643 (1993)


Facts

Geronimo Villegas (defendant), co-owner and vice president of Plaza Health Laboratories, Inc. (Plaza Health) (defendant), a blood testing laboratory in Brooklyn, New York, dumped approximately 70 vials of human blood in the Hudson River on at least two separate occasions. Villegas was charged with two counts of knowingly discharging pollutants from a “point source” without a permit and two counts of knowingly discharging pollutants into navigable water in violation of the Clean Water Act (CWA). 33 U.S.C. §§ 1311 and 1319(c)(2). A jury convicted Villegas on all four counts. After the verdict, the court entered a judgment of acquittal on two of the four counts, namely those charging Villegas with knowingly discharging pollutants into the river in violation of the CWA. Villegas appealed. The government cross-appealed, claiming the court erred by entering the judgment of acquittal.

Rule of Law

The rule of law is the black letter law upon which the court rested its decision.

To access this section, please start your free trial or log in.

Issue

The issue section includes the dispositive legal issue in the case phrased as a question.

To access this section, please start your free trial or log in.

Holding and Reasoning (Pratt, J.)

The holding and reasoning section includes:

  • A "yes" or "no" answer to the question framed in the issue section;
  • A summary of the majority or plurality opinion, using the CREAC method; and
  • The procedural disposition (e.g. reversed and remanded, affirmed, etc.).

To access this section, please start your free trial or log in.

Dissent (Oakes, J.)

The dissent section is for members only and includes a summary of the dissenting judge or justice’s opinion.

To access this section, please start your free trial or log in.

What to do next…

  1. Unlock this case brief with a free (no-commitment) trial membership of Quimbee.

    You’ll be in good company: Quimbee is one of the most widely used and trusted sites for law students, serving more than 97,000 law students since 2011. Some law schools—such as Yale, Vanderbilt, Berkeley, and the University of Illinois—even subscribe directly to Quimbee for all their law students. Read our student testimonials.

  2. Learn more about Quimbee’s unique (and proven) approach to achieving great grades at law school.

    Quimbee is a company hell-bent on one thing: helping you get an “A” in every course you take in law school, so you can graduate at the top of your class and get a high-paying law job. We’re not just a study aid for law students; we’re the study aid for law students. Read more about Quimbee.

Here's why 220,000 law students have relied on our case briefs:

  • Written by law professors and practitioners, not other law students. 14,100 briefs, keyed to 189 casebooks. Top-notch customer support.
  • The right amount of information, includes the facts, issues, rule of law, holding and reasoning, and any concurrences and dissents.
  • Access in your classes, works on your mobile and tablet. Massive library of related video lessons and high quality multiple-choice questions.
  • Easy to use, uniform format for every case brief. Written in plain English, not in legalese. Our briefs summarize and simplify; they don’t just repeat the court’s language.