Zhen Li Iao (plaintiff), a Chinese national, fled to the United States to practice Falun Gong, a religion outlawed in China. Li filed an application for asylum. Li testified at her hearing through an interpreter. An immigration judge denied the application and ordered Li to be deported. The judge found, among other things, that Li did not have expertise in Falun Gong, that she did not present clear evidence of her practice of Falun Gong, and that her testimony was inconsistent. The Board of Immigration Appeals affirmed without issuing an opinion. Li filed a petition for review.