A Mississippi statute prohibits adoptions by same-sex couples. Four lesbian couples and two advocacy groups, including the Campaign for Southern Equality (plaintiffs), sued the director of the Mississippi Department of Human Services, the state governor, and the state attorney general (defendants), challenging the law as unconstitutional under the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses. Two couples sought adoption of one partner’s biological child, while the other two sought adoption of a child through state foster care. The department, governor, and attorney general claimed governmental immunity and that the claimants lacked Article III standing to sue. The claimants requested a preliminary injunction precluding the department from enforcing the law prohibiting same-sex couples from adopting.