Under Ohio law, minors could not obtain an abortion without showing parental consent or judicial approval pursuant to a “judicial-bypass” procedure. A minor’s judicial-bypass petition was to be granted where she demonstrated sufficient maturity and knowledge or where the abortion was in her best interests. In 1998, an amendment to the law was enacted in which minors were restricted from filing more than one judicial-bypass petition per pregnancy. The justification for the regulation was to prevent minors from judge-shopping. Cincinnati Women’s Services, Inc. (CWS) (plaintiff) filed a lawsuit against the state of Ohio (defendant) to overturn the regulation. The trial court upheld the constitutionality of the law, and CWS appealed.