Gladys Escola (plaintiff) worked as a waitress in a restaurant. One day, she was placing bottles of Coca-Cola that had been delivered 36 hours earlier in the restaurant’s refrigerator. The bottles were filled by Coca-Cola Bottling Co. of Fresno (Coca-Cola) (defendant). As Escola was handling the fourth bottle, it exploded in her hand and caused her severe injuries. Escola brought suit against Coca-Cola on the ground that the company was negligent in allowing excessive pressure or gas to build up in the bottle or using defectively manufactured bottles which were dangerous and likely to explode. A jury found in Escola's favor, and Coca-Cola appealed to the California Supreme Court.