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Made in the U.S.A. Foundation v. United States

United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit
242 F.3d 1300 (11th Cir. 2001)


In 1994, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) took effect as a congressional-executive agreement in the United States (defendant). Thereafter, numerous labor organizations and nongovernmental organizations (plaintiffs), including Made in the U.S.A. Foundation (plaintiff), challenged the United States’ execution of NAFTA as a congressional-executive agreement, arguing that the execution violated the Article II constitutional treaty-making requirement of ratification by two-thirds of the Senate. The district court granted summary judgment to the United States. The plaintiffs appealed.

Rule of Law


Holding and Reasoning (Fletcher, J.)

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