Rodney Holm (defendant), an active member of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, legally married Suzie Stubbs in 1986. He later entered marriages with Wendy Holm and Ruth Stubbs, Suzie’s 16-year-old sister. The marriages to Wendy and Ruth were solemnized in religious ceremonies only and not otherwise registered with the state. Before reaching age 18, Ruth Stubbs conceived two children with Holm. The state of Utah (plaintiff) charged him with violating the state’s bigamy law and with having unlawful sexual conduct with a minor. After being convicted, he appealed on the grounds that his conduct was not bigamy and that, in any event, the bigamy law was unconstitutional under state and federal law.