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Williams v. School District of Bethlehem
United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit
998 F.2d 168 (1993)
John Williams attended Liberty High School (Liberty). Liberty had no boys’ field-hockey team. As a freshman, Williams tried out for and earned a spot on the girls’ field-hockey team along with one other boy. Liberty ultimately prevented the boys from playing. Williams’s parents (plaintiffs) sued the school district (defendant) challenging their son’s exclusion from the girls’ team on various grounds, including under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX), 42 U.S.C. § 1983 based on a violation of equal protection, and the Pennsylvania constitution. The trial court granted summary judgment to the Williamses on their claims, and the school district appealed.
Rule of Law
Holding and Reasoning (Sloviter, C.J.)
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