Examine the causation element of crime, which is the connection between a culpable act and the harmful effect it produces, including the requirements of both actual and proximate causation.
In addition to needing an actus reus and mens rea, criminal liability also requires causation. Causation refers to the connection between a culpable act and the harmful effect it produces.
As in tort law, causation has two components: actual cause and proximate cause. Under both the common law and the Model Penal Code, actual cause is determined by a "but for" analysis: But for the defendant's conduct, would the result have occurred?
If there are multiple causes of a particular harm, the...