Paul (defendant), Director of the Department of Agriculture of California, promulgated regulations for the quality of avocados that could be sold in California markets. Under the regulations, no avocados could be sold in California that had less than eight percent oil content. However, under federal regulations, Florida growers were permitted to sell avocados that had less than eight percent oil content. Florida Lime & Avocado Growers, Inc. (FLAG) (plaintiff) was a Florida-based grower impacted by the California regulations. FLAG brought suit in federal district court seeking to enjoin Paul from enforcing the California regulations against them on the grounds that the regulations were preempted by federal law, violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, and violated the Commerce Clause as an unconstitutional burden on interstate commerce. The district court denied an injunction, and FLAG appealed to the United States Supreme Court.