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Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 11


Rule requiring that pleadings in a civil proceeding in federal court be signed by an unrepresented party or a represented party’s attorney. In submitting a pleading to the court, an attorney or unrepresented party certifies that the action is not being presented for any improper purpose; that the pleading's legal contentions are grounded in existing law or based on a nonfrivolous argument for modifying existing law or establishing new law; that the pleading's factual contentions are based on the evidence or likely to be supported by evidence after a reasonable opportunity for discovery; and that any denials of factual contentions are warranted on the evidence or, if specifically identified, are reasonably based on belief or lack of information. Violations of Rule 11 may result in sanctions.

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