After Alabama made English its official language, the Alabama Department of Public Safety (defendant) started to administer driver’s license exams in English only. Sandoval et al. (plaintiffs) brought suit claiming that the English-only administration of the exam violated the disparate impact regulations (Section 602) in Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 by discriminating against them on the basis of their national origin. The United States District Court for the Middle District of Alabama issued an injunction enjoining the English-only policy. The United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit affirmed. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari on only the question of whether private individuals have a cause of action to enforce the disparate impact regulations (Section 602) in Title VI.