Bartkus (defendant) was tried in federal court for robbing a federally insured savings and loan association. He was acquitted by a jury. A few weeks later, Bartkus was indicted under a state statute for the same robbery. The FBI conducted the federal investigation and turned over the evidence it had collected to the state prosecuting officials. The record gave no indication that the state prosecution was being used as a tool by the federal authorities to circumvent the prohibition against double jeopardy. Bartkus claimed that he had already been acquitted of the offense and he therefore could not be tried again. The trial court rejected this plea and Bartkus was convicted by a jury.