Two Arizona lawyers, John Bates and Van O’Steen (defendants), ran a newspaper advertisement for their legal clinic, indicating that they offered legal services at very reasonable fees. The advertisement listed the defendants’ fees for the routine legal services offered at their clinic. Subsequently, the Arizona State Bar (State Bar) (plaintiff) filed a complaint against the defendants, as Arizona ethics rules prohibited all advertising by lawyers. The State Bar recommended suspension for each defendant. The defendants sought review of the State Bar’s disciplinary action, arguing that the Arizona ethics rules were unconstitutional. The Arizona Supreme Court rejected the defendants’ claims, and the defendants appealed to the United States Supreme Court.