The Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie County (District) (defendant) instituted a drug testing policy for all students participating in extracurricular activities. The policy requires students to be tested before participating in an extracurricular activity, at random as long as they participate, and any time the school has reasonable suspicion. The test requires the student to produce a urine sample while being monitored from outside the stall. Test results are kept confidential and never turned over to police. Students that test positive may not be permitted to participate in extracurricular activities. Lindsay Earls, Daniel James, and their parents (plaintiffs) filed suit under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 claiming the policy violates the United States Constitution and seeking injunctive and declaratory relief. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari.