In 1980, Congress passed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA), 16 U.S.C. § 3111 et seq., which set aside land for conservation purposes and Alaska Native subsistence hunting, fishing, and gathering. Pursuant to Alaska laws enacting ANILCA, the Alaska Board of Game (defendant) promulgated regulations governing the hunting of caribou and moose for Alaska Native residents (plaintiffs) of Lime Village, Alaska. The regulations set bag limits and seasons on the hunting of caribou and moose, including limiting residents to hunting during certain months of the year and limiting the number of animals that any one resident could kill. The residents of Lime Village sued for a declaratory judgment that the regulations were unlawful, because they did not give sufficient priority to their subsistence rights, as required by ANILCA, and an injunction requiring Alaska to submit new regulations to the court for court approval.