School officials in the Ridgewood Board of Education (the district) (defendant) administered a survey to students in the seventh through twelfth grades. The survey discussed very sensitive topics such as suicide, drug use, alcohol use, and sexual activity. Parent organizations voiced concerns about the survey and requested information on how to opt students out of the survey. The information provided to parents did not discuss the ability to opt out of the survey. The survey was administered during the school day, and a period was provided for any students who were not in attendance on the day the survey was given to take the survey later. The District reported 100 percent participation. The survey did not contain any identifying information. There was no space for student names, addresses, or identification numbers. The form instructed the students that the survey would be confidential and directed the students to not put a name on the form. Three students and their parents (plaintiffs) sued the district, alleging a violation of the constitutional right to privacy. The trial court granted summary judgment to the district. The plaintiffs appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit.