On November 6, 1963, a San Francisco Housing Inspector entered the apartment building where Roland Camara (defendant) resided to make a routine inspection. After being told that Camara was living on the ground floor in violation of the building’s occupancy permit, the inspector demanded to inspect the area. Camara refused to allow the inspector in without a search warrant that day and again when the inspector returned. Camara was issued a citation requiring appearance at the office of the district attorney. When Camara did not appear, inspectors returned to the building demanding entry pursuant to § 503 of the Housing Code. Camara refused. A complaint was filed, and Camara was charged and later arrested for refusing the inspection. While he was awaiting trial, Camara brought an action in state trial court for a writ of prohibition. The court denied the writ, and the appellate court affirmed. The state supreme court declined to hear the case, and the action came before the United States Supreme Court.