In 2006, CSC Holdings, Inc. (Cablevision) (defendant), a cable-television operator, planned to implement a new digital-video recorder (DVR) system that would allow customers to record cable-television programs on remote hard drives managed by Cablevision. The system would be known as Remote Storage DVR (RS-DVR) and would require small segments of each cable program to be sequentially reproduced during a buffering process prior to storage. These segmented copies would exist for no more than 1.2 seconds before being placed into storage. Many of Cablevision’s content providers, including Cartoon Network LP, LLLP (Cartoon Network) (plaintiff), viewed the system as an infringement of their copyright-protected content and subsequently brought a suit against Cablevision for injunctive and declaratory relief on the basis of Cablevision’s unlicensed reproduction. The district court granted summary judgment to Cartoon Network, finding the RS-DVR system to be a violation of the content providers’ exclusive right to reproduce their copyrighted material. Cablevision appealed.