Dutee Chand (plaintiff) was a competitive runner from India. Chand had hyperandrogenism, which gave her higher than normal levels of testosterone. The International Association of Athletics Federations (the association) (defendant) was the governing body of Chand’s sport. The association placed restrictions on the eligibility of female athletes with high levels of naturally occurring testosterone. Chand was suspended from competition due to her high levels of androgen and testosterone. Chand challenged her suspension and the association’s regulations on hyperandrogenism. Chand argued that the regulations (1) discriminated unlawfully against female athletes and athletes who possessed a particular natural physical characteristic, (2) were based on flawed factual assumptions about the relationship between testosterone and athletic performance, (3) were disproportionate to any legitimate objective, and (4) were an unauthorized form of doping control. The case was brought before the Court of Arbitration for Sport.