The Alien Contract Labor Act (Act) prohibited corporations from contracting with aliens who resided outside of the United States to perform labor or service of any kind within the United States. The Church of the Holy Trinity (Holy Trinity) (defendant) was incorporated in the State of New York. Holy Trinity entered into a contract with an English citizen, E. Walpole Warren, to relocate to New York City and serve as Holy Trinity’s pastor. The United States (plaintiff) brought suit against Holy Trinity for violating the Act. The trial court found in favor of the United States. Holy Trinity appealed.