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Clark v. Arizona Interscholastic Association
United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
695 F.2d 1126 (1982)
A group of male high school students (plaintiffs) filed suit against the Arizona Interscholastic Association (AIA) (defendant) because they were not allowed to participate in their high school volleyball teams, which were girls-only. The AIA did not allow boys to play on girls’ non-contact sports teams to compensate for girls’ historical lack of opportunity in interscholastic sports and to prevent the girls’ displacement from teams. Boys had ample interscholastic athletic opportunities in various other sports, in the past and present. Uncontested evidence showed that high school boys were taller, could jump higher, and were stronger than high school girls and would be better volleyball players than girls on average. Based on these stipulated facts, the district court entered judgment in AIA’s favor. The court found that the AIA’s rules did not violate equal protection and that the maintenance of girls-only volleyball teams was substantially related to the asserted governmental objectives. The male students appealed.
Rule of Law
Holding and Reasoning (Nelson, J.)
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