An Indiana statute required citizens voting in person on election day, or casting a ballot in person at the office of the circuit court clerk prior to election day, to present photo identification issued by the government. The statute did not apply to persons voting by absentee ballot, or to persons living and voting in a state-licensed facility such as a nursing home. An exception existed for voters who could not be photographed for religious reasons. A voter who had photo identification but was unable to present it on election day could file a provisional ballot that would only be counted if the voter brought his or her photo identification to the circuit county clerk’s office within ten days. Crawford and several other Indiana voters (plaintiffs) filed suit against the Marion County Election Board (defendant) in federal district court on the grounds that the photo identification requirement unduly burdened their constitutional right to vote. The district court upheld the law as constitutional, and the court of appeals affirmed. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari.