Tai Kwan Cureton (plaintiff) and Leatrice Shaw (plaintiff) were talented high school track and field runners who were heavily recruited by Division I colleges around the country. However, because neither was able to achieve the minimum SAT or ACT test scores required by National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) (defendant) rules, each was ineligible to participate in NCAA athletics. Shaw nevertheless secured an athletic scholarship from Miami University as a “partial qualifier,” but was not eligible to compete during her freshman year. Cureton ended up at Division III Wheaton College, which did not offer any athletic scholarships. Cureton and Shaw, and other student-athletes brought suit against the NCAA, alleging that its minimum test score rule violated Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. § 2000d. Both parties brought cross-motions for summary judgment.